Nutrigenomics combines the study of nutrition and genetics to discover the different ways people respond to food based on their genetic make-up. While humans are very similar genetically, we all have slight differences in our genetic blueprints which set us apart from other people. These tiny variations determine both the effect nutrients have on our bodies and how we metabolise the food that we eat.
Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics fall under the umbrella of nutritional genomics—so what’s the difference between the two? Both study how individual genetic makeup contributes to observed differences in response to diet and how that gene-diet interaction contributes to a predisposition to disease. Nutrigenomics goes deeper, using molecular tools to identify how nutrients and bioactive food compounds alter the DNA transcription and translation process, affecting the expression of genes that regulate critical metabolic pathways, which may ultimately affect health outcomes.
Sometimes referred to as nutrigenetics, enables us to understand why some individuals respond differently than others to the exact same nutrients.
The second approach that nutrigenomics researchers use is to investigate how nutrients and bioactive components in food turn on or off certain genes — these genes impacting important metabolic and physiologic processes in the body.
Nutrigenomics may have the potential to prevent and treat diet-related chronic disease and conditions in a way that nutrition recommendations based on epidemiologic research and physiology can’t by using genetics and molecular biology to predict individual risks, explain why those risks are presently based on genotype, and allow personalization of nutrition therapy.
Nutrigenomics Market Scenario
The Nutrigenomics market is one that has emerged in the past few years, carrying with it a massive potential. With the global statistics for obesity, lifestyle diseases and the ever increasing demand for effective cosmetic treatments, nutrigenomics has risen up as a potential treatment option.
Studying the effects of nutrients and genetics is allowing the creation of application in healthcare that addresses problems according to ideal nutrition for any given a patient’s particular genes. The targetted applications of nutrigenomics promise to make this a thriving market during the forecast period. Rising healthcare expenditure, and encouraging government support for research and development in this field has motivated robust growth and it is projected to continue.
Understanding the global nutrigenomics market involves delving into the various market segments so as to accurately predict growth. This market has been segmented on the basis of products, techniques, and application.
On the basis of products, the market has been segmented into reagents & kits and services.
On the basis of techniques, the market has been segmented into saliva, buccal swab, blood, and others.
On the basis of application, the market has been segmented into obesity, diabetes, anti-aging, and chronic diseases. Obesity is the largest market segment owing to sedimentary lifestyles, unhealthy food choices. Certain medical conditions that cause obesity may also be treated with nutrigenomics.
Nutrigenomics and Obesity
CVD, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are major public health focus areas. Accordingly, they’re also points of focus for nutrigenomic research. Many cellular functions related to energy balance are regulated by gene expression and gene-environment interactions. Genetic variation may affect appetite, calorie intake, and macronutrient preference, as well as insulin signaling, inflammation, adipogenesis (the formation of fat cells), and lipid metabolism. This means that the individual variation is seen in body weight and composition likely is influenced by genetic makeup as well as diet and activity patterns.